Rio to Lima Adventure
Day 1 Rio de Janeiro
Arrive at any time as there are no planned activities. We will be departing by noon on Day 2 - so check into our hotel and enjoy the city. Enjoy any free time by exploring the wonders that this city has to offer from our centrally-located hotel in Copacabana or take an optional city tour. Please note that hot water shortages and power outages can be fairly common in Latin America (even in upgraded hotels and private homes). We appreciate your patience and understanding that these occurrences are outside of our control. "God made the world in six days, the seventh he devoted to Rio." So say the Cariocas, residents of this beautiful city. Few cities enjoy such a dramatic setting as Rio. Brilliant, white beaches at Copacabana and Ipanema, deep blue waters of the Atlantic, the luminescent green of Guanabara Bay, the bare blue slopes of the Sugar Loaf and the steep green hills behind, combine to make Rio unique. Standing over it all, atop Corcovado, is the huge statue of Christ the Redeemer, which is the best place from which to appreciate the city. From the top of the Pao do Açucar (Sugar Loaf), which can be reached by cable car, you will see superb panoramic views of the city and area. Head to some of the famous beaches, and prepare yourself for an experience unlike anything else on Earth. There are many optional activities your tour leader can help you to arrange. Few cities enjoy such a dramatic setting as Rio, whose images of the Corcovado (Christ the Redeemer) and Pao de Açucar (Sugar Loaf) are synonymous with Carnival and the joie de vivre embodied by the Cariocas. Head to some of the famous beaches like Ipanema or Copacabana, and prepare yourself for an experience unlike anything else on Earth.
Day 2-6 Ilha Grande/Paraty
From Rio we head south along the Atlantic coast to the port of Angra dos Reis, and onward by ferry to Ilha Grande. Relax and enjoy a cool Caipirinha on the beach, or try surfing. Further down the mainland coast we encounter the quaint colonial town of Paraty, an architectural gem famous for its churches. We skip the 19 hour journey by land and put a flight in from Sao Paulo to give you more time to enjoy the next spot - Foz do Iguaçu, or Iguassu falls, which borders Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. In order to see the falls properly you need to view them from both the Brazilian and the Argentine side. The Brazilian side offers the grand overview, and the Argentine side a closer look. The best time of the year to see them is from August to November, as from May to July you may not be able to approach the swollen waters on the catwalks. We spend a couple of days to take full advantage of the many opportunities and activities, which include an exhilarating optional boat tour at the falls, or simply marvelling at nature’s breadth and the roar of the falls. Note: If you have booked the Iguassu Falls Boat Ride Theme Pack, you will do it on Day 8 or 9 when visiting the Argentine side of the falls.
Day 7-9 Iguassu Falls
We cross into Uruguay for our first stop - a local ranch, known in the region as an Estancia. We get into rural life, learn about the historical roots of the region, participate in the farming, go for a hike or sit back and sip on the wines of the region as you take in local Uruguayan life. Next, spend some time in the capital city Montevideo, by far the country's largest city, founded by the Spanish in 1726. Over half of the population (about 1 million) lives here and the city dominates the commercial and cultural life of the nation. It's very lively and modern with many architecturally interesting buildings, yet the city also maintains a very quiet atmosphere. There are several good museums not to be missed, as well as some very good beaches just outside the city. Lastly travel along the shores of the Rio de la Plata to the charming colonial city of Colonia del Sacramento. Experience the relaxed, pleasant Uruguayan culture and stroll down its cobble-stoned streets before crossing into Argentina.
Day 10-11 Estancia Stay (1B,2L,2D)
Cross the Rio de la Plata by ferry to reach the dynamic city of Buenos Aires. There is much to do in this vibrant metropolis, with plenty of museums, theatres, and historical areas. Known as the ‘Paris of the Americas,’ Buenos Aires is a vibrant city full of life. Be sure to visit the districts of La Boca, Recoleta, and San Telmo, or catch a tango show at one of the many famous tanguerías or tango houses. Wander the pedestrian walkways and see some dancing in the streets. Whatever you do, Buenos Aires is sure to leave lasting memories. The capital city of Argentina, Buenos Aires is the ultimate cosmopolitan city. Travellers find that it has more in common with the cities of Europe than the rest of South America. Nearly 40 per cent of Argentina’s 33 million citizens live in Greater Buenos Aires, and the Porteños are justifiably proud of their home. The city is comprised of a number of distinct neighbourhoods, some of which have become top tourist draws. For many, the highlight of their time in the capital is a visit to San Telmo for the weekend antiques market and street artists’ displays. La Boca was originally settled by the successive waves of immigrants that contribute to the capital’s unique character. Its brightly coloured walls and buildings draw Porteños and tourists alike. Posh Recoleta, with its cafés, museums and cemetery, is a pleasant place to spend an afternoon. During colonial days, Buenos Aires was the seat of the Viceroy of La Plata. Almost completely rebuilt since the turn of the century, the heart of the city is the Plaza de Mayo, with the historic Cabildo (Town Hall), where the Independence movement was first planned, the Casa Rosada (Government Palace) and the Cathedral, where San Martín, the father of Argentine independence, is buried. When you are done exploring, settle your weary feet and enjoy a drink in one of the many sidewalk cafés and restaurants, and you will begin to understand the contemplative Argentine way of life. Buenos Aires will be your first chance to try the succulent bifé and parrilladas, so dig in and enjoy! Please note: You should be especially careful when wandering about the capital city on your own, particularly at night. Tourists are easy prey for individual pickpockets or groups of two or more people, working as a team, on the streets. Pay particular attention to anyone who “accidentally” spills anything on your clothes or belongings (mustard, etc.), then apologizes and offers to help clean up. They will clean you out instead! Be safe and leave your passport, credit cards, traveller’s cheques and cash you won’t be using immediately within the hotel’s safety deposit box. Most Porteños are honest and genuinely helpful and friendly, but be safe and enjoy the city!
Day 12-14 Montevideo/Colonia (1B)
We make our way to Salta, choosing a flight over a long bus ride. Salta, situated in the Lerma Valley of northern Argentina, is home to Empanadas Salteñas - the delicious local specialty, and no visit to the town will be complete without giving them a try. In the evening experience the local celebration at one of the "Peña" folklore shows. On day 3 you will have some free time to explore the area. The scenic Quebrada de las Conchas, and Cafayate, famed for it´s wine and vineyards, are recommended stops. The multi-coloured valleys in the region of the foothills of the Andes are sure to be a highlight.
Day 15-17 Buenos Aires
A night bus brings us further north to the dry desert regions of the country, where we stop in the little town of San Pedro de Atacama, on the edge of the Atacama desert. There are plenty of optional excursions here, like biking, exploring nearby ruins, horseback riding, and a tour of the Valley of the Moon.
Day 18-19 Salta
Climbing almost 3000 metres into the Chilean altiplano, we embark on our 3-day desert crossing into Bolivia. Spend three days in the stunning landscapes between the Salar de Uyuni and the Atacama Desert in Chile. The salt flats now cover a total area of over 12000 square km (7440 square miles) and is one of Bolivia's main salt mining centers. Driving across the salt flats is a fantastic experience, particularly for the contrast of piercing blue skies and blinding white salt on the flat lakebed. The area’s unusual landscape of mountains, active volcanoes and geysers is like nowhere on earth. Our groups like to get creative with photography, as the endless white of the salt flats creates some great depth illusions that are fun to play with in photos. The tour takes us through the impressive large red lagoon of Laguna Colorada the striking blue-green Laguna Verde at 5000m. The region's volcanic activity is present as we pass by numerous geysers, boiling mud pools, thermal baths and Licancabúr Volcano. Surprisingly, both wildlife and flora manage to survive and even thrive in the desolate landscape; this includes vizcachas (of the rodent family), flamingos and assorted varieties of cacti. We offer unique accommodation on the Uyuni Salt Flats. Instead of very basic refuges and homestays most operators use, we have upgraded to simple hotels that are equipped with solar panels to provide electricity and hot water. Rooms are multi-share and each with a private bathroom. Meals are made from local ingredients, most of which are grown on-site. Note: During the rainy season the locations visited may change due to some routes being covered by water.
Day 20-21 San Pedro de Atacama
Situated at 4070m (13,350 ft), Potosí is the highest city of its size on earth. UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site in1987 in recognition of its tragic history in the mining of silver during the time of Spanish colonization. Potosí provided a large share of the silver mined and shipped back to Spain until the early 1800s, when both the supply of silver and world market prices began to decline. Working conditions for miners were appalling, and a large portion of the indigenous population was decimated. African slaves were brought in to replace the native workers, and it is estimated that as many as eight million indigenous people and Africans died in the mines during the first three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. There is time for an optional tour to the working mines of the Mountain of Silver, an eye-opening excursion. On day 27, we travel north to Sucre. Often referred to as Bolivia’s White City, the country’s official capital, Sucre, is situated at nearly 2800m (9184 ft) and offers its visitors and inhabitants a more moderate, comfortable climate than cities at higher elevation. After getting settled from the overnight bus, we tackle the city as there is a lot to offer during our two days here. Optional activities include a visit to dinosaur footprints, a visit to an old tin baron’s mansion, a textile cooperative, mountain biking and hiking. Before the conquest, military, religious and political leaders of the local indigenous population made their homes on the present day city site. The site became the headquarters for the Spanish Royal Court, which by the late 1700s, ruled over colonial Paraguay, parts of Peru, Argentina, Chile, and most of Bolivia. In 1825, in the wake of the Latin American independence movement, the city was renamed Sucre, after Simon Bolívar’s second-in-command, General Sucre. The city’s fine museums, colonial buildings and ties to the independence movement make it a city of great historical interest. On the evening of day 29, we board an overnight bus to our final stop, La Paz.
Day 22-24 Salt Flats/Uyuni (2B,3L,2D)
Waking up from our overnight bus, we get settled and have the day to check out the city of La Paz. Founded by Alonso de Mendoza in 1548, La Ciudad de Nuestra Señora de La Paz (the City of Our Lady of Peace) is the highest capital in the world. Although Sucre is the official capital, La Paz is the Bolivian centre of commerce, finance and industry, and the de facto capital. This is a busy modern city, with its centre at the base of a canyon 5 km (3 miles) wide and sprawling impromptu housing all the way up the surrounding hillsides. The city is at nearly 4000 m (13,120 ft) above sea level, so visitors should be prepared for cool evenings and mornings. Explore the city’s many fine museums or its historic ecclesiastical structures, such as the Iglesia de San Francisco, whose architectural details reflect the indigenous and mestizo heritage of modern Bolivia. The city is also renowned for its many markets, including the Mercado de Hechicería (Witches’ Market), where Paceños and visitors may purchase potions and incantations made from all sorts of herbs, seeds, and secret ingredients to remedy any number of illnesses (real or imagined) and protect from evil spirits. With streets lined with market stalls and vendors, the pace on the street and the vibrant atmosphere is an incredible experience. There is also a thriving black market and a Carnaval market, where locals purchase carnival costumes. You’ll also find a wealth of shops selling all sorts of handicrafts, mainly alpaca wool products, silver jewellery, woven textiles and leather goods. Optional activities in La Paz include museums, excursions to Tiahuanaco ruins (cradle of Inca civilization), a tour of the Valley of the Moon, or a visit to the world’s highest ski resort, Chacaltaya (5600 m/18,368 ft). To the south of the city is the Valley of the Moon, with crater-like formations made of sand.
Day 25-29 Potosí/Sucre
The drive around Lake Titicaca and through the altiplano from La Paz to Peru is impressive. Once crossing into Peru we head to Puno, on the shores of Lake Titicaca. There is an overnight excursion to the Islands on lake Titicaca. This includes a visit to the Uros floating islands, and an overnight stay with a family on Taquile or Amantani Island. We return to Puno in the late afternoon. Located 3830 m (12562 ft) above sea level, Puno’s weather can be extreme with very cold nights, and a strong sun during the day. There is not a lot to see in Puno itself, however there are several good spots offering scenic views of Lake Titicaca and the town. Puno is also known for its wealth of traditional dances. There are up to 100 different varieties, usually performed in the street processions celebrating Catholic feast days. You may see these celebrations if you’re fortunate enough to be visiting at the appropriate time. Lake Titicaca, at 3820 m (12529 ft) above sea level, is touted as the highest navigable lake in the world. This is not entirely true; it is simply the best known. It is, however, the largest lake in South America, over 170 km (106 miles) in length, and the largest lake in the world above 2000m (6560 ft). The horizon appears limitless from the lake, and the water a deep and inviting blue. Our first stop is the floating reed islands of the Uros people. The Uros began their unusual floating existence centuries ago in an effort to isolate themselves from rival tribes the Collas and the Incas, but due to intermarriage with Aymara speaking people they lost their original language. Today about 300 people live on the islands, however their numbers are slowly declining. The islands are made up of many layers of reeds. As the layers closest to the water start to rot, they are replaced with fresh reeds on top. They also use the reeds to build their boats, which if constructed well, last up to 6 months. The totora reeds that grow in the shallows of the lake are used for making everything from the islands themselves to the model boats that the islanders offer for sale. Taquile is rich in culture, and the people’s unique style of dress and lifestyle will definitely make for a memorable visit. Men of the community do all the knitting, strictly a male domain, while women do the spinning. High quality, locally knitted goods are available for purchase at various cooperatives on the island. Despite the short distance that separates the two islands, Amantaní is quite distinct. Its soil is a rich terra cotta red, due to the high iron deposits, which contrasts brightly with the deep azure blue of the lake and sky, and greenery of the local crops.
Day 30-34 La Paz/Puno/Lake Titicaca
Today a full days bus journey takes us through the high Altiplano region to get from Puno to Cusco, the capital of the Inca Empire
Day 35-43 Cuzco/Ollantaytambo/Inca Trail (3B,3L,3D)
Cusco attracts thousands of travellers who come to experience an age-old culture and to delve into its tragic and noble past. It is the perfect base for optional explorations of the city and area as well as a range of outdoor activities. We spend the next few days relaxing and exploring this fascinating city, while taking time to acclimatize to the higher altitude before our trek. Please note that if you booked the Adrenaline Theme Pack, on Day 36 you will be picked up from your hotel at approx 8:00 for the fantastic opportunity to raft in Class III and IV rapids. You will return back to your hotel around 17:00. On Day 42 you will be picked up from your hotel at approx 9:00 and transferred to the ranch for horseback riding. You will ride to a few archaeological sites and enjoy the countryside of Cusco. You will return back to your hotel around 13:00. Cusco’s numerous colonial churches are one of the most common sights. The Cathedral was started in 1559 and took 100 years to build. It is also one of the city’s greatest repositories of colonial art. Immediately in front of the entrance is a vault containing the remains of the famous Inca historian, Garcilaso de la Vega. Also worth visiting are the churches of La Compañía, La Merced and San Francisco. While most ruins are just outside of the city, the main ruin within is that of the Coricancha, once the Inca Empire's richest temple. This ruin forms the base of the colonial church of Santo Domingo. During Inca times this temple was literally covered with gold, but within months of the arrival of the first conquistadors this incredible wealth had all been melted down. It is left to the individual imagination to envision the magnificence of the original structure. There are several good museums in Cusco, including the Archaeological Museum, which also houses a small art museum, the Regional History Museum and the Religious Art Museum. The best advice in exploring Cusco is to wear a comfortable pair of shoes, arm yourself with a city map and set off to explore! En route to Ollantaytambo, travel through the stunning Sacred Valley of the Incas. Opt to take a tour of the Sacred Valley and visit a Planeterra-supported women's weaving co-op. The impressive Pisac ruins, the colourful artisan market (market days only) and the large ruin site of Ollantaytambo that lies adjacent to the town of the same name where we catch our breath and prepare for the hike ahead. Planeterra has been working with the Ccaccaccollo community since 2005 to develop a viable economic alternative for women by creating a weaving cooperative to sell traditional textiles to travellers. Donations by travelers have helped build a community centre supplied with looms and sewing machines for the women to use to expand their production. This project allows the women of the Ccaccaccollo community to maintain their cultural heritage and benefit from the tourism industry. Ollantaytambo is a major Inca ruin site and your first taste of what lies ahead on the Inca Trail. This major ruin site is known as the best surviving example of Inca urban planning and engineering. It is admired for its huge steep terraces guarding the Inca Fortress and for being one of the few places where the Spanish lost a major battle during the conquest. We spend the night in this small town before heading out for the start of the hike the next morning. For those craving more before they head out on the Trail you can take a Sacred Valley tour which includes not only Ollantaytambo but also the ruin site of Pisac. The 4-day Inca Trail to Machu Picchu is physically challenging but worthwhile, and the excursion is within the ability of most reasonably fit people. It is a 44km (27 mile) hike, with three high passes to be crossed, one of which reaches an elevation of 4200m (13,776 ft). The trail is often steep, and it may rain even during the dry season. The temperatures at night may fall below freezing, so it is important to come prepared. NOTE: We offer two alternatives to hiking the Inca Trail. If Inca Trail permits are sold out, travellers will be given the option to hike the Lares Trek (details below). Travellers not able to hike or not interested in hiking, can opt to spend two extra days in Cusco (details below) before travelling to Machu Picchu. If you do not want to hike, we need to know at the time of booking in order to obtain train tickets. Once Inca Trail permits are confirmed there will be fee for any changes made. The fee may vary depending on the changes that are made to your itinerary. Please advise your agent or G Adventures. Also note the Inca Trail is closed for general maintenance every February for the entire month. Travellers will be hiking the Lares Trek during this time. Other closures to either trek may occur at anytime throughout the year due to inclement weather or other conditions beyond our control. In these instances, itineraries will be reworked to provide the best and safest possible experience. INCA TRAIL DETAILS Day 1 of the Inca Trail: Depart Ollantaytambo by van to km 82 where the hike begins. This takes about 40 mins. Our crew of local porters, cooks and guides will take care of all the details for the duration of the hike. Porters carry the majority of the gear so you’ll only need to carry a small daypack with water, rain gear, snacks, a camera, etc. You’ll trek through beautiful scenery with a variety of flora, changing with the seasons, passing several smaller ruin sites like Llactapata. Start point Km 82 to Wayllambama Approximate distance: 11km/6.8mi Estimated hiking time: 5-6 hrs Day 2 of the Inca Trail: Start early to climb the long steep path to Warmiwañusca, better known as Dead Woman’s Pass. This is the highest point of the trek at 4198m (13,769ft). Most hikers reach camp by early afternoon, with ample time to rest and relax. Wayllabamba to Paqaymayo Approximate distance: 12km/7.5mi Estimated hiking time: 6-7 hrs Day 3 of the Inca Trail: Today we cross two more passes and more ruins along the way. The first pass is at 3998m (13,113ft) where, on a clear day, you can catch a glimpse of the snow-capped Cordillera Vilcabamba. You’ll hike through cloud forest on the gentle climb to the second pass of the day where you walk through original Incan constructions. The highest point of this pass is 3700m (12,136ft). On a clear day, enjoy the views of the Urubamba Valley. At 3650m (11,972ft) you’ll reach the ruins of Phuyupatamarca, the ‘Town Above the Clouds’. We either camp here or an hour and half further along, near the Wiñay Wayna ruins (Forever Young). Paqaymayo to Wiñaywayna Approximate distance: 16km/10mi Estimated hiking time: 8 hrs Day 4 of the Inca Trail: The final day of the hike starts pre-dawn to reach the Sun Gate before the sun rises. When the morning is clear, you soak in your first views of the breathtaking ruins of Machu Picchu as the mist rises off the mountains and the sun begins to illuminate the site. Hike down to Machu Picchu about 45 minutes more where you’ll have a guided tour of the site and free time to explore. Travellers can opt to visit the Inca Bridge (15 min walk) for no additional charge, if time allows. After your visit, catch the bus from outside the Machu Picchu gate and take it 15 mins downhill to Aguas Calientes where you’ll meet your CEO and any non-hiking members of your group. Eat and relax before your train back to Cusco this evening. Wiñaywayna to Intipunku (Sun Gate) Approximate distance: 4km/2.5mi Estimated hiking time: 1.5 hrs Aguas Calientes to Cusco Approximate Distance: 118km/73mi Estimated Travel Time: 3.15 hrs LARES TREK DETAILS: The Lares Trek is one day shorter than the Inca Trail, but higher in elevation (33km/20.5 miles, with a high point of 4600m/14,928ft). Travellers hiking the Lares Trek will start the same day as those hiking the Inca Trail. The 3-day hike starts with a van ride from Ollantaytambo to the trekking start point and returns back to Ollantaytambo by van from the trekking end point. From there, hikers will take a scenic train to Aguas Calientes for one overnight stay. In most cases, your CEO will hike the Lares Trek with you. From Aguas Calientes you will take the bus (15 mins) to Machu Picchu early the next morning for a guided tour of Machu Picchu. After the tour and some free time, catch the bus down to Aguas Calientes and take the train back to Cusco with the rest of the group. NOTE: The locations and distances may change on this hike as we will camp in different locations depending on pace, ability and weather. Starting in 2014 travellers will stay in a newly established community-owned and managed campsite in an indigenous village previously bypassed by the tourism industry. Details on this IDB/MIF and Planeterra project can be found in the Associated Planeterra Project section of our “Before You Go”. Day 1 of the Lares Trek: Start early and take a van (3 hrs) to Lares town where the hike will start with a leisurely pace through the valley of Cuncani. Hike 4km (2.5mi) to Chancachaca where we stop for lunch. Altitude here is around 3480m (11,417ft). Continue on to Wacawasi where we camp for the night at 3825m (12,549ft). Lares town to Wacawasi Approximate distance: 11km/6.85mi Estimated hiking time: 4 hrs Highest point: 4200m/13,780ft Day 2 of the Lares Trek: Start early and hike for about 4 hrs from Wacawasi to Wacawasi-Ccassa for a total of 7.5km (4.6mi). Head downhill another hour or so before stopping for lunch in Auroracocha. Continue down for another 2.5 hrs to Mantanay where we stay the night (3200m/10,499ft). Wacawasi to Mantanay Approximate distance: 11km/6.8mi Estimated hiking time: 6.5hrs Highest point: 4600m/15092ft Day 3 of the Lares Trek: Today we hike about 2.5 hrs (9km/5.6mi) to Punta Carretera where we stop for lunch. Take a bus about 30 mins back to Ollantaytambo were we catch the train for a relaxing, scenic ride to Aguas Calientes. Mantanay to Punta Carretera Approximate distance: 9km/5.6mi Estimated hiking time: 3.5 hrs Highest point: 4100m/13451ft Punta Carretera to Ollantaytambo Estimated travel time (bus): 30 mins Ollantaytambo to Aguas Calientes Estimated travel time (train): 2 hrs Day 4 of the Lares Trek: Rise early to catch the first bus up to Machu Picchu with your guide. Enjoy a guided visit to the ruins followed by free time to explore. When you’re ready, head back down by bus to Aguas where you’ll meet up with the rest of the group and take a train back to Cusco. Aguas Calientes to Cusco: Approximate distance: 118km/73mi Estimated travel time: 3.15 hours CUSCO STAY DETAILS: Anyone electing to do the Cusco Stay will have two extra days to explore this ancient Inca capital city. When hikers leave Ollantaytambo, travellers doing the Cusco Stay will return to Cusco with their CEO. Enjoy the afternoon and the next day in Cusco with options to visit ruins round the city, enjoy activities in the area or spend time shopping, eating and exploring. The next day, travel by van to Ollantaytambo where you catch the scenic train to Aguas Calientes. The next morning, rise early to catch the first bus up to Machu Picchu with your guide. Enjoy a guided visit to the ruins followed by free time to explore. When you’re ready, head back down by bus to Aguas where you’ll meet up with the rest of your group and take a train back to Cusco.
Day 44-47 Arequipa/Colca Canyon
Peru’s second most important city after Lima, Arequipa maintains a traditional colonial style and more laid back pace in comparison with the capital. Arequipa was built from a very light coloured volcanic rock called sillar, so older buildings dazzle in the sun, thus giving the city its nickname, “the White City.” The main plaza with its cafés and nearby cathedral is a top draw for visitors. Those with an interest in history and architecture may take an optional visit to the Convent of Santa Catalina, offering a brief respite from the outside world and a unique view into a by-gone way of life. Spectacular mountains surround Arequipa, the most famous of which is El Misti Volcano, at 5822 m (19096 ft) and with a beautiful snow-capped peak. Our overnight excursion to the Colca Canyon—the deepest canyon in the world—involves a remarkable drive through Inca and pre-Inca terracing. Once at the Canyon look for the king of the Andes, the Andean Condor, as well as alpacas, llamas and vicuñas, while enjoying the stunning highland scenery.
Day 48-49 Nazca/Paracas (1D)
Travel north to one of the world's greatest archaeological mysteries, the Nazca Lines. The lines consist of patterns and pictures etched in the ground, crisscrossing a wide area of flat desert. Some of the lines measure up to 10 km (32 miles) in length, and yet remain perfectly straight. The depictions of birds, insects and animals are only recognizable from the air. Who drew the lines, and why, is something that modern archaeologists can only theorize about, but current beliefs suggest that they may be part of complex agricultural calendar. From the ground we can make out very little, and the best view is from a light aircraft, which can easily be arranged. The entire desert area was also once the home for the Paracas and the Nazca cultures, which preceded the Incas by more than half a millennia. Remains of the Nazca culture are still visible during an optional tour of an ancient desert cemetery site, which also includes a visit to a pottery workshop. In the evening we assist in the preparation of a thousand year-old tradition: a "Pachamanca", an ancient ceremony akin to the Polynesian meal of burying a variety of delicious treats wrapped in banana leaves and slow-cooking them with pre-heated rocks buried in the ground. Continuing north arrive in Paracas, close to Pisco. Pisco derives its name from the white grape brandy produced in the region. If you haven’t yet tried the national drink, the Pisco Sour, then this is the place to do it. While the town itself is of considerable historical and archaeological interest, we also use it as a starting point for an optional visit to the Ballestas Islands, where we observe the sea lion colonies, penguins and a variety of other birds.
Day 50 Lima
Founded by Francisco Pizarro, on the Day of the Three Kings (Epiphany) in 1535, Peru’s capital city Lima is known as the City of Kings. The Plaza de Armas is the heart of old Lima and here you’ll find the Cathedral, Government Palace and Archbishop’s Palace. The Cathedral dates back to the 1700s and houses the remains of the conquistador Pizarro. To get a feel for colonial Lima, take a cab to the Plaza de Armas and watch the changing of the Palace Guard in the afternoon. Walk around the streets surrounding the Jirón de la Unión for great examples of Spanish-colonial architecture and to experience life in a large South American city. There are many fine museums in and around the city, including the Museo Rafael Larco Herrera, which houses an equally impressive collection of pottery, mummies and textiles from the Paracas and Nazca cultures. An optional city tour visits many of the cities highlights. The more affluent coastal districts of Miraflores, Barranco and San Isidro offer good nightlife and cafés. The Limeños are friendly and the city’s many interesting museums, churches, markets, restaurants and nightlife will surely entice you. Seafood lovers should be sure and try a ceviche, for which Lima is well known. NOTE: Care should be taken when wandering around on your own in central Lima as, some areas can be dangerous and pickpockets are daring.
Day 51 Lima
Depart at any time.